General Chemistry System – code: 7615.01

General Chemistry System

Code: 7615.01

An introductory system to chemical phenomena

Altay’s General Chemistry System consists of a complete set of laboratory equipment and glassware stored in a foam cushioned aluminium storage case.

Setting up a demonstration is quick and simple. The Instruction Manual includes over 60 experiments that students or teachers can prepare in minutes. Altay always pays particular attention to safety so our set includes personal safety equipment.

Specifications
Size: 75x55x20 cm
Weight: approx. 9 kg
Packing: durable aluminium carry case with foam inserts

Equipment Suggested
RED pH Meter (code 4840.13)
Tripod Stand (code 4830.46)

MAIN COMPONENTS

  • Safety goggles
  • Safety gloves
  • Iron stand with universal clamps and ring
  • Spirit burner
  • Wire gauze
  • Electronic balance
  • Plastic test tube rack
  • Test tubes
  • Beakers of various capacities
  • Conical flask
  • Measuring cylinders

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

  • Investigating the law of mass conservation
  • The effect of temperature on solubility
  • Supersaturated solutions
  • Diffusion in a solution
  • Colloids
  • Properties of colloids
  • Coordination complexes
  • Water of crystallization
  • Density
  • Melting of sulphur
  • Acid base reactions
  • Enthalpy of solution
  • Enthalpy of crystallisation
  • Enthalpy of neutralisation
  • Combustion of magnesium
  • Combustion of sulphur
  • Hydrogen production
  • Properties of hydrogen
  • Carbon dioxide production
  • Properties of carbon dioxide
  • Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate
  • Calcium carbonate and bicarbonate production
  • Ammonia production
  • Ammonia solubility
  • Ammonia equilibrium
  • Ammonium chloride production
  • Ammonium chloride dissociation
  • Ammonia– ammonium chloride buffer
  • Sodium nitrate decomposition
  • Nitric acid production
  • Oxygen production and properties
  • Oxygen production II
  • Allotropic states of sulphur
  • Sulphur dioxide production and properties
  • Sulphurous acid production and properties
  • Iodine and starch detection
  • Reduction of potassium manganate(VII) (permanganate)
  • Metallic salts
  • Metallic salts II – production of sodium sulphate
  • Precipitation of metallic hydroxides
  • Properties of metallic hydroxides
  • Zinc and strong bases
  • Copper complexes
  • Air analysis – oxygen percentage
  • Air analysis II
  • A water analysis
  • Analysis of the products of combustion
  • Production of methane
  • Combustion of ethanol
  • Production of soap
  • Soap properties
  • Trommer’s test on aldheydes
  • Fehling’s test on glucose
  • Inversion of sucrose
  • Copper complex with glucose
  • Carbonization of sucrose
  • Degradation of starch
  • Degradation of cellulose
  • Nitrogen in proteins
  • Sulphur in proteins
  • Coagulation of egg albumen

LAWS AND PRINCIPLES INVESTIGATED

  • Chemical and physical properties
  • Law of mass conservation
  • Solubility and temperature effects
  • Diffusion
  • Enthalpy
  • Colloids
  • Acid-base reactions
  • Coordination complexes
  • Combustions
  • Simple analysis
  • Reactions of elements:
    • Hydrogen
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Sulphur
    • Iodine
    • Sodium
    • Metals
  • Organic Molecules:
    • Methane preparation
    • Soap preparation
    • Sugar experiments
    • Proteins experiments
    • Tests on sugars
EXAMPLE OF USE: Coordination complex

When a substance dissolves in water, its molecules/ions are surrounded by water molecules. In some cases, it is possible that water molecules coordinate with the solute ions, i.e. water molecules become part of a chemical structure with the solute called a coordination complex. Not only water can coordinate with ions but also other substances form coordination complexes.

The electronic structure of the transition elements allows the formation of coordination complexes in which the metal ions bond with other ions or molecules to form a structure with a characteristic 3-dimensional geometric shape. The shape adopted by the complex may be associated with a characteristic colour. Copper forms easily coordination complexes with water and other substances. Anhydrous copper sulphate has a dirty white colour, whereas the hydrate CuSO4•5H2O has a blue colour because copper is coordinated with water in the crystals. Dissolving either of these salts in water gives a blue solution because the copper ions coordinate with water molecules. Adding a small quantity of ammonia raises the pH of the solutions shift towards alkaline values and some copper hydroxide precipitates.

Cu2++ 2OH → Cu(OH)2

Copper hydroxide has a pale blue colour. If ammonia is added in excess the precipitate dissolves because a tetraammine complex of copper is formed with the ammonia and a royal blue solution is obtained.

Cu(OH)2+ 4NH3 → [Cu(NH3)4]2++2OH

Adding some sodium chloride to the starting copper sulphate solution causes a bright green due to the formation of copper (II) chloride complexes.

All you need for teching the basics of chemistry