Optics System 3 – code: 4864.39

Optics System 3

Code: 4864.39

An advanced optics system with diode laser

The Optics System 3 includes everything needed for a complete course in advanced optics.

Our system will take students through reflection, lens theory, diffraction, interference, diffraction grating and multiple slit diffraction. You can also study many aspects of modern optical technology. The equipment is easy to use and durable, and the experiments are substantive, yet conceptually easy to conduct. Areas of study including geometric principles of optics, polarisation of laser beams, investigating basic and study advanced diffraction principles. The results will be accurate and repeatable every time!

Specifications
Size: 30x25x10 cm
Weight: 1.5 kg
Packing: durable aluminium carry case with foam inserts.

Equipment Needed
Vernier Caliper (code 2213.10)
Tape Measure (code 2211.10)

Equipment Suggested
RED Light Sensor (code 4840.18)
RED Sensor Universal Adapter ( code 4831.00)
Tripod Stand (code 4830.46)

MAIN COMPONENTS

  • Laser on stem
  • Cylindrical lens
  • Polaroid filter
  • Slide with 1 slit (width 0.06 mm,
    separation 0.20 mm)
  • Slide with 2 slit (width 0.06 mm,
    separation 0.20 mm)
  • Slide with 3 slit (width 0.06 mm,
    separation 0.20 mm)
  • Slide with 4 slit (width 0.06 mm,
    separation 0.20 mm)
  • Slide with 5 slit (width 0.06 mm,
    separation 0.20 mm)
  • Slide with 6 slit (width 0.06 mm,
    separation 0.20 mm)
  • Coarse grating 1 (4 lines per mm,
    line/space ratio 3:1)
  • Coarse grating 2 (4 lines per mm,
    line/space ratio 6:1)
  • Coarse grating 3 (8 lines per mm,
    line/space ratio 3:1)
  • Metal gauze 300 mesh for bidimensional diffraction grating
  • Diffraction grating with three different rulings (100, 300 and 600 lines per mm)

EXPERIMENTS DETAILED IN THE MANUAL

  • Introduction to Ray Optics
  • The Law of Refraction
  • The Diffraction Grating
  • Single-slit Diffraction
  • General Diffraction
  • Using Diffraction gratings
  • The effects of Double slit on diffraction (Two-slit Interference)
  • Investigating Optical activity
  • Overview of interference and diffraction
  • Single slit diffraction
  • Polarization
  • Introduction to Optical Instruments

LAWS AND PRINCIPLES INVESTIGATED

  • Diffraction
  • Diffraction grating
  • Interference
  • Multiple slit diffraction
  • Optical activity
  • Single slit diffraction
EXAMPLE OF USE: Fraunhofer diffraction

Using a diffraction grating to create a diffraction pattern.

Diffraction of light occurs when a light wave passes by a corner or through an opening or slit that is physically the approximate size of, or even smaller than that light’s wavelength. Diffraction describes a specialized case of light scattering in which an object with regularly repeating features (such as a diffraction grating) produces an orderly diffraction of light in a diffraction pattern.
These phenomena can be described through the Huygens-Fresnel’s Principle. Huygens postulated that as a wave propagates through a medium, each point on the advancing wavefront acts as a new point source of the wave.
For instance, the points inside a slit become sources of virtual elementary spherical waves. The observed real wave is the result of the interference of the elementary waves. This suggests that diffraction and interference are phenomena that can be referred to only in a theoretical interpretation.

Constructive interference. Where (p) is the pitch of the diffraction grating.


By using a motion detector and a light sensor you can show a graph of the light intensity vs. the light sensor position (i.e., distance). This is possible by moving the light sensor around the positions of maximum intensity while sampling its position with the motion detector. For a distance x = 173 cm and a diffraction grating with a pitch (p) of 0.13 mm we get the following result.

Diagram shows constructive and destructive interference of the light coming from the diffraction grating
Experimental data of luminous intensity vs. position for a diffraction grating